Vesta is a research-based organization. Our mission is to further the science of Coastal Carbon Capture and galvanize global deployment.

What is Coastal Carbon Capture?

Coastal Carbon Capture, known in academic research as Coastal Enhanced Weathering, can be categorized as a negative emission technology (NET) that removes and stores CO2 on long timescales (tens to hundreds of thousands of years) (Minx et al. 2018). The process aims to accelerate the natural chemical weathering of the mineral olivine by spreading large amounts of ground olivine-containing rock onto coastlines where it can dissolve in seawater, thereby increasing the rate of CO2 absorption by the ocean (Bach et al. 2019).

When olivine dissolves in water, it drives the below reaction to the right, thus increasing CO2 uptake, increasing pH, and generating alkalinity. As a result, this process has the potential co-benefit of counteracting ocean acidification. Ocean acidification is the process by which increasing atmospheric CO2 dissolves in seawater, which reduces pH (increasing acidity) (upper reaction in diagram below). This reduces the ability of calcifying organisms like corals to grow and produce exoskeletons, or shells. As you can see below, dissolving olivine in water sequesters hydrogen ions into dissolved silicate (H4SiO4), a molecule that can be used by diatoms, an important photosynthesizing algae that fixes carbon dioxide and forms the base of food web.

The Carbonate chemistry Reaction
The carbonate chemistry reaction graphic

This reaction is the foundation of the Long-Term Inorganic Carbon Cycle, which has been occurring for billions of years, stabilizing Earth’s atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and in turn enabling life to thrive. In fact, carbon dioxide removal (CDR) through natural rock weathering consumes ~1 gigaton of CO2 every year (Ciais et al. 2013). Indeed, there are naturally-occurring olivine beaches with diverse ecosystems like Papakōlea Beach in Hawaiʻi, where we are researching the local ecology, ecotoxicology, olivine weathering rates, and secondary mineral formation.

Unfortunately, natural chemical weathering happens too slowly to balance human CO2 emissions and is already accounted for in Earth’s present-day carbon budget. Vesta is pioneering techniques to accelerate this natural process to remove at least a gigatonne of atmospheric CO2 per year on a global scale. We are an international team of scientists and entrepreneurs working to safely and effectively scale Coastal Carbon Capture (CCC) worldwide.


Minx, J. C., Lamb, W. F., Callaghan, M. W., Fuss, S., Hilaire, J., Creutzig, F., et al. (2018). Negative emissions — Part 1 : research landscape and synthesis. Environ. Res. Lett. 13:053001. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aabf9b

Bach, L. T., Gill, S. J., Rickaby, R. E. M., Gore, S. & Renforth, P. (2019) CO2 Removal With Enhanced Weathering and Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement: Potential Risks and Co-benefits for Marine Pelagic Ecosystems. Frontiers in Climate 1–21 doi:10.3389/fclim.2019.00007.

Ciais, P., Sabine, C., Bala, G., Bopp, L., Brovkin, V., Canadell, J., et al. (2013). “Carbon and other biogeochemical cycles,” in Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 465–570.

I. biological studies

A. Overview

Olivine is one of the most abundant, naturally occurring minerals worldwide with olivine beaches hosting diverse ecosystems in places like Hawaii and Guam. Nonetheless, it is necessary to understand any potential organismal and/or ecosystem effects resulting from the placement of large volumes of olivine along coastal zones. When olivine dissolves, it releases naturally occurring metals and bio-essential nutrients into the seawater which can temporarily elevate concentrations above background levels. Although we believe that the ecological risk of doing so is low, Vesta nonetheless takes this very seriously and is collaborating with numerous institutions to investigate the potential impacts of olivine dissolution products on organisms and ecosystems.

B. Ecotoxicology studies with Enthalpy Analytical

Enthalpy Analytical is a national network of multi-agency accredited laboratories (i.e., National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program (NELAP) certified laboratory) that offers a range of environmental analyses for organizations and governmental agencies. Vesta is working with Enthalpy to study any potential toxicity effects of olivine dissolution on a range of representative organisms from single-celled algae to marine plants to benthic invertebrates to marine vertebrates.

C. Coral studies

Because olivine dissolution can increase alkalinity and counter ocean acidification, it may create favorable conditions for corals. However, olivine dissolution can also release trace metals like Nickel and Chromium. Vesta is studying the concentrations at which these metals may impact coral physiology.

D. Seagrass studies with Florida International University

In collaboration with seagrass experts Dr. Justin Campbell and Dr. James Fourqurean, Vesta is researching the effects of olivine dissolution on multiple species of seagrasses.

E. Phytoplankton studies with University of Southern California scientists

Numbering in the trillions of cells, microalgae influence numerous global processes from the carbon cycle to marine food webs. Hence, changes in their bio-ecology can have cascading ecosystem effects. In collaboration with researchers at the University of Southern California, Vesta grew several globally important phytoplankton functional groups under elevated concentrations of olivine dissolution products. We found no evidence of toxic effects for the 6 species of phytoplankton, which are representative of other phytoplankton groups worldwide. These results indicate that olivine dissolution products are unlikely to cause negative effects for marine phytoplankton, even at high concentrations. See the preprint here.

F. Hawaii - Papakōlea Beach 

Papakōlea Beach is a naturally occurring olivine beach located on the South Point of the Big Island of Hawai’i and represents a type of endmember case following natural, large-scale olivine weathering. Near Papakōlea are adjacent black and white sand beaches generally devoid of olivine which experience similar sea-state and oceanographic conditions. These beaches offer a critical opportunity to perform comparative studies between Papakōlea and non-olivine beaches. In collaboration with researchers at the University of Hawai’i, Vesta plans to analyze samples of marine algae and small invertebrates from Papakōlea and surrounding beaches to assess possible ecotoxicological effects from Papakōlea.

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II. ecological studies

A. Overview

While our biological studies aim to characterize physiological responses of important marine species, our ecological studies investigate potential changes to species distribution and diversity in a given ecosystem as a result of olivine dissolution. For any location, Vesta spends months studying the local ecology prior to any olivine placement. These data along with counsel from local experts are used to assess whether a site is safe and suitable to move to the further stages in the project.

B. Hawaii - Papakōlea Beach 

As discussed above, Papakōlea Beach is a naturally occurring olivine beach that represents an unprecedented opportunity to characterize the ecology of a natural site that has been subjected to long-term olivine weathering. The ecology here provides a window into what an olivine deployment may look like centuries after deployment. In collaboration with Dr. John Burns, underwater visual 3D maps of Papakōlea and adjacent beaches are being generated to document coral cover, algae, benthic invertebrates, and fish abundance. 

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III. Biogeochemical studies

A. Overview

The amount of atmospheric CO2 sequestered from olivine dissolution depends on numerous factors including air-sea gas exchange, biological interactions, local environmental gradients, and secondary mineral reactions, to name a few. Although the reaction rates of olivine dissolution have been studied in idealized laboratory settings, reliable reaction rates in natural, coastal conditions are severely lacking. Vesta is conducting numerous studies to fill major knowledge gaps in our understanding of olivine dissolution in a natural coastal environment.

B. Olivine dissolution kinetics 

We are conducting well-controlled benchtop laboratory experiments that simulate and examine the rate at which olivine dissolves in seawater conditions. These experimental studies provide us essential information on the timescale of olivine dissolution and the efficiency of CO2 capture. The experiments are on-going and are being conducted at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.

C. Sediment diagenesis model 

We are developing a sediment diagenetic model to investigate the dissolution of olivine in coastal systems. This model includes parameterizations for redox reactions, advection, bio-diffusion, and bio-irrigation. Our concurrent empirical experiments measuring olivine dissolution in mesocosm-like settings (see below) will greatly improve this model as most parameterizations derive from idealized laboratory data.

D. Earth-system modeling

If performed at a large scale, CO2 capture by olivine dissolution should lead to a temperature decrease, or at least warming reduction, but may also influence other aspects of the Earth System, such as vegetation, ice and cloud coverage, or permafrost stability. Dissolved iron, silica and trace metals released into the marine environment upon olivine dissolution may also influence marine ecosystems in various directions. To investigate how the complex series of climate feedback mechanisms would be affected, and to quantify expected temperature changes, we are collaborating with colleagues at the National Oceanography Centre and at the Met Office (UK) to run olivine dissolution simulations at the Earth System scale.

E. Olivine microcosms 

Vesta is conducting a series of microcosm studies in collaboration with Dr. David Hutchins and Dr. Feixue Fu in which olivine will be dissolved in natural seawater and sediment in small experimental chambers. Although microcosms result in lower spatial resolution than mesocosms, environmental gradients can be more tightly controlled and rapidly varied to investigate the effects of multiple environmental gradients acting simultaneously on olivine dissolution rates. These data will be critical to help parameterize our sediment diagenesis model.

F. Tropical mesocosms in the Dominican Republic

We are conducting mesocosm studies examining olivine dissolution in natural seawater and sediment in warm tropical conditions. Mesocosms are enclosed containers (~1m x ~1m) that aim to replicate natural conditions. Generating these data in controlled settings will be critical to help constrain olivine dissolution rates as we move to more variable conditions in coastal settings.

G. Olivine weathering at Papakōlea Beach 

In conjunction with ecotoxicological and ecological research at Papakōlea, Vesta is conducting geochemical research on in-situ olivine weathering rates, the fate and transport of reaction products (Mg, Si, trace metals, alkalinity), and the precipitation of secondary carbonates. The goal of this work is to precisely determine the rate and controls on olivine weathering and dissolution in a steady state system where olivine has been weathering for millennia.

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IV. Sediment Transport and Geomorphology Studies

A. Overview

Coastal environments are highly variable systems, in which sediment transport is driven by a combination of hydrodynamic conditions including waves, tides and currents. Sediment is transported both laterally and vertically, with the rate and direction of movement influenced by the energy in the system derived from the hydrodynamic conditions and the size and density of grains. Lateral and vertical transport of olivine affects the dissolution rate. As olivine is approximately 26% more dense than quartz sand, which is commonly found on beaches globally, its transport mechanisms will be different. Hence, Vesta is conducting sediment transport studies to determine the specific transport behaviors of olivine relative to quartz sand. The findings from these studies will be used to inform appropriate deployment strategies that aim to maximize the dissolution rate.

B. Lateral sediment transport modeling  

Numerical models provide a useful tool to simulate complex physical processes efficiently. Vesta are conducting in-house numerical modelling, in collaboration with Coastal Protection Engineering (CPE), using the Delft3D hydro-morphodynamic modelling suite. The model is being used to simulate the lateral transport of olivine in the coastal zone under different driving environmental conditions. Since olivine has a higher density than typical quartz beach sand, it is likely to be transported differently and result in alternate distribution patterns. The objective of this modelling study is to identify deployment strategies which ensure prolonged submergence of olivine to facilitate chemical weathering, ensure deployment within sufficient wave energy zones to drive physical weathering, and are within areas with limited lateral transport to aid in monitoring of dissolution rates.

C. Vertical sediment transport modeling  

In vertical sediment transport, the “active layer” is typically defined as a layer where intense particle collisions and particle-fluid interactions occur. Effective olivine dissolution requires olivine particles to remain in the active layer. Vesta collaborated with the labs of Dr. Tian-Jian Chi Hsu at the University of Delaware and Dr. Joe Calantoni at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory to determine the optimal particle sizes for olivine grains to remain in the active layer.

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V. Stakeholder engagement

At Vesta, we believe that equity and justice must be at the heart of climate solutions. Today, the worst effects of the climate crisis are being felt by underserved communities worldwide, including certain coastal communities. Furthermore, a considerable gap remains in scientific understanding of public perceptions of negative emissions technologies, particularly within developing countries.

Environmental justice

Vesta has developed a justice-based approach to partner with coastal communities through a participatory governance framework that proactively integrate multi-stakeholder perspectives. Please see more in our preprint here.

Community participation

At all potential deployment sites, we engage with local communities, scientists, NGOs, government officials, and various other stakeholders to build relationships and listen to diverse perspectives throughout our process. We routinely involve community personnel in the implementation of CCC.

Justice and inclusion

Vesta's goal is to have positive long-term impacts in the communities in which we work. We avoid assumptions and instead listen to the community's needs and concerns. Through these learnings, we aim to support communities based on specific feedback.

In addition to hiring local personnel for our projects, Vesta also funds local institutions and nonprofits to undertake collaborative scientific research in addition to supporting local students through scientific internships.

Social science for Ocean CDR

There is very little social science research examining perceptions of Ocean CDR, particularly in developing countries where communities are disproportionately vulnerable to climate risks. Since Vesta aims to conduct Coastal Carbon Capture in a variety of countries, we are working to help close the gap to ensure the perspectives of under-represented communities are included in the peer-reviewed literature.

Vesta is working in collaboration with social scientists and local community engagement experts to conduct research at potential deployment sites, including in the Global South. We plan to publish comparative research examining how perceptions and concerns of Ocean CDR and Coastal Carbon Capture vary across populations.

We believe it is critical to recognize this diverse set of opinions to not only address the impacts of climate change but also ensure the implementation of climate solutions is just and inclusive.

Dominican Republic

In the Dominican Republic, Vesta developed a justice-based approach to partner with national stakeholders and communities through active involvement and participation. Our participatory governance framework proactively integrated multi-stakeholders perspectives on climate change and Vesta’s research activities, while also building trust, encouraging discourse and ensuring that community members could make informed decisions and voice opinions about the project.

Mapping key stakeholders, understanding the local socioeconomics, and deeply learning about knowledge and attitudes toward Vesta and the climate emergency are important for developing an engagement approach that accounts for community-specific needs and interest.

This framework has been developed in collaboration with researchers Dr. Harry Hilsner from the University of Exeter and Dr. Emily Cox from Cardiff University.

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V. Vesta Abstracts/Manuscripts

1. Andrews, M.G. (2021) Olivine Sand: A cost-effective carbon-removing material for coastal protection projects. North Carolina Beach, Inlet and Waterways Association Fall Meeting.

2. Andrews, M.G., Romaniello, S.J., Sulpis, O., Syverson, D., Hsu, T.-.J., Rafati, Y., Zhang, J., Calantoni, J., Montserrat, F., Walworth, N., Moreau, C., Lopez, P., Hayden, M., and Green, T. (2021) Advancing Coastal Enhanced Weathering as a climate change mitigation technology through strategic, interdisciplinary research. WHOI Ocean Carbon & Biochemistry (OCB) Summer Workshop.

3. Andrews, M.G., Hayes, H., Hostak, R., Janakowski, E., Moreau, C., Ethan, S., van de Mortel, H., Romaniello, S.J., Montserrat, F., and Walworth, N.G. (2023) Vesta Annual Monitoring Report: Coastal Carbon Capture at North Sea Beach, Period June 2022 - January 2023.

4. Hutchins, D.A., Fu, F.-X., Yang, S.-C., John, S.G., Romaniello, S.J., Andrews, M.G., and Walworth, N.G. (2023) Responses of globally important phytoplankton groups to olivine dissolution products and implications for carbon dioxide removal via ocean alkalinity enhancement. In preprint. bioRxiv. doi:10.1101/2023.04.08.536121

5. Hilser, H.; Cox, E.; Draiby, A.; Moreau, C.; Hiraldo, L.; Walworth, N.; Winks, L. (2022) Climate Justice and Localized Governance: Coastal Carbon Removal in Small Island Developing States. Preprint.

6. Moreau, C., Montserrat, F., Green, T., Matzner, E., Syverson, D., Sulpis, O., ... & Romaniello, S. J. (2021) Progress toward small-scale field trials of coastal enhanced weathering of olivine. Goldschmidt Conference.

7. Moreau, C., Walworth, N., Vogel Draiby, A., Hiraldo, L., Hilser, H. (2022) A participatory governance approach to researching Coastal Carbon Capture. Conference on Negative CO2 Emissions.

8. Romaniello, S.J., Green, T., Ley, B., Erhart, K (2021) Olivine Sand: A cost-effective carbon-negative alternative for beach nourishment and shoreline construction? ABSPA 2021 ASBPA National Coastal Conference.

9. Romaniello, S.J., Sulpis, O., Cole, D.B., Syverson, D., Montserrat, F., Moreau, C., Walworth, N., Andrews, M.G. (2022) Impacts of Enhanced Olivine Weathering in Nearshore Marine Environments. Goldschmidt Conference.

10. David Kriebel1, PhD, PE and Chloe Leach2, PhD, 1 Principal, Coastal Analytics LLC, 2 Research Scientist, Vesta PBC Comparison of U.S. and European Practice for Nearshore Sand Placement. ASBPA.

11. Chang, B.X., Hayes, H., Hostak, R., Jankowska, E., Leach, C., Ethen, S., Halonen, R., Moreau, C., Gobler, C., Cerrato, R., Sclafani, M., Fisher, N.S., Montserrat, F., Romaniello, S., Walworth, N., Andrews, M.G. (2023) Preliminary Findings From A Small-Scale Field Trial of Coastal Enhanced Weathering With Olivine in NY, USA. WHOI Ocean Carbon & Biochemistry (OCB) Summer Workshop.

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Vi. Field Pilots

After over 2 years of foundational research, Project Vesta is preparing for its first field pilots. Our pilots aim to address the urgent call in The National Academy of Sciences Report for field pilots of Coastal Carbon Capture. Three major pillars form each field pilot.

A. Stakeholder engagement

Project Vesta works with local communities in both public and private sectors to inform, plan, and design field pilots. Our participatory governance integrates input from local and regional stakeholders into the implementation and permitting of Coastal Carbon Capture. 

B. Environmental Impact Assessment

Project Vesta conducts extensive ecosystem monitoring before and after olivine placement including ecological and ecotoxicological assessments of local fauna.

C. Quantification of CO2 removal

Project Vesta assesses CO2 removal through numerous approaches including monitoring changes in carbonate chemistry, alkalinity, secondary minerals, nutrients, sediment transport, and other biogeochemical and physical parameters.

A Coastal Community in the Town of Southampton, New York

Project Vesta is conducting a small field pilot of Coastal Carbon Capture™ (CCC) in collaboration with a private community in the Town of Southampton (NY) and First Coastal. Following extensive stakeholder engagement and months of planning and design, The Town’s North Sea Beach Colony - Beach Erosion Control District (NSBC-BECD) – has been awarded a NYSDEC permit as well as a NYS Coastal Management concurrence to add 500 cubic yards of olivine sand to their larger beach nourishment project consisting of 15,000 cubic yards of fill material. Beach nourishment is a method for providing critical flood and erosion protection and has been used widely throughout the United States and the world for over a century.

The main objectives of this project are to 1) measure olivine dissolution, 2) quantify CO2 removal, and 3) determine any positive or negative impacts on the local ecosystem. Our monitoring program will characterize seawater and porewater geochemistry through both in-situ sensor arrays and sample analysis. Key parameters include the dissolved carbonate system, major cations, and trace metals. Seawater measurements will be made available to the public though AquaLink. Sediment cores will be analyzed for mineralogy and other sedimentological factors. Microbial, ecological, and ecotoxicological analyses will be conducted to monitor species abundance, distribution, and biogenic trace metal content.

This site will be one of Project Vesta’s first demonstration pilots of Coastal Carbon Capture™ and serves as an important part of its overall research program. It will generate critical data concerning the safety and effectiveness of this solution. This pilot also supports the State of New York’s Carbon Dioxide Removal Leadership Act toward its ultimate goal to achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions.

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